Scientific Management and Use of Fertilizer
Three main consequences of excessive chemical fertilizer damage to crops:
1. One is easy to fall, and once it appears, it will inevitably lead to a reduction in grain production;
2. The other is prone to pests and diseases. Excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer will weaken the ability of crops to resist pests and diseases, be susceptible to pests and diseases, and then increase the amount of pesticides used to eliminate pests and diseases, directly threatening the safety of food.
3. Finally, it leads to soil degradation: causing changes in soil acidity. Calcium superphosphate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride and the like are all bio-acidic fertilizers, that is, after the plant absorbs the nutrients in the fertilizer, the hydrogen ions in the soil increase, which easily causes soil acidification.
Long-term application of chemical fertilizers in large quantities, especially in the case of continuous application of a single variety of fertilizers, can occur in a short period of time.
Acidification of the soil can lead to the release of toxic substances, or increase the toxicity of toxic substances, which will have adverse effects on the organism. Soil acidification can also dissolve some nutrients in the soil. Under the action of rainfall and irrigation, it can infiltrate the groundwater downwards, causing the loss of nutrients, causing soil depletion and affecting crop growth.
In response to these circumstances, we urgently need to do the following in future fertilizer management and use:
a) The deficit of soil organic matter is a serious problem near the whole country. It is imperative to pay attention to the study of organic matter supplementation and the application of organic fertilizer.
b) The impact of the reduction of organic fertilizer application on soil structure, soil microbial flora and soil micro-ecological environment needs further research.
c) The focus of farmers’ fertilization should be transformed from single fertilizer application to organic-inorganic combination, with organic fertilizer being the main fertilizer!
d) Excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer has attracted attention in some areas. From the monitoring results, the effects of excessive application of phosphate fertilizer and accumulation of phosphorus in many areas must also receive sufficient attention. It can be increased by increasing the use of organic fertilizer to reduce its input.